Nowadays, we have access to more information of Optical Passive Components than ever before. We live in a digital world and bandwidth is what makes a digital world happen. There are many types of networks carrying different types of information. However, all these individual networks can be divided into two categories: passive and active. A passive network does not use electrically powered equipment or components to get the signal from one place to another, while an active network uses electrically powered equipment or components to route the signal from one place to another. This article will briefly introduce both passive and active fiber/copper networks.
Passive Copper Network
There are many different types of passive copper networks, but the one virtually everyone is familiar with is their home cable TV network. In a copper cable TV network, the cable provider supplies the signal to the home over a coaxial cable. The cable enters the home and is routed to a single television. However, few homes have a single television. For homes with multiple TVs, the signal from the cable provider must be split for each television to receive the signal. The splitting is usually accomplished with a splitter. The splitter requires no electrical power. It will typically have a single input and may have two, three, four, or more outputs. The following picture is an example of a splitter that has a single input and four outputs. An individual cable is routed from the splitter to each television.
With this type of network, loss of signal strength will occur. As the signal from the cable provider is split and routed to multiple televisions, the signal strength to each television is reduced. Adding too many televisions can reduce the signal strength to the point where none of the televisions receives adequate signal strength to operate properly. When this happens, it is time to install an active cable TV network.
Active Copper Network
Same with the passive copper networks, there are also many types of active copper networks. The previous section focused on a passive home cable TV network and pointed out that you can only connect a limited number of televisions to this type of network. In order to have adequate signal strength for multiple televisions, for example, one in each room, an active network is required. In an active home cable TV network, one cable enters the home and is routed to a distribution amplifier. The distribution amplifier boosts or amplifies and splits the signal from the cable provider. Each output of the distribution amplifier has a signal strength approximately equal to the signal strength on the input cable from the cable provider. An individual cable is routed from the distribution amplifier to each television.
This type of active network overcomes the signal strength problem associated with a passive network. However, it does add a level of complexity and requires power. If the distribution amplifier were to fail, all the televisions would lose their signals. The same would be true if the distribution amplifier were accidentally unplugged: every television in the house would be without a signal.
Passive Optical Network
Various types of passive optical networks (PON) are available, and one of the most common types is very similar to the passive cable TV network previously described. However, optical fiber is used instead of coaxial cable. In any PON, couplers are the core. A coupler may combine two or more optical signals into a single output, or the coupler may take a single optical input and distribute it to two or more separate outputs. The following picture is an example of a seven-port coupler. The coupler is splitting a single input signal into six outputs.
Many couplers are designed for bidirectional operation, which enables the same coupler to be used either to combine signals or to split signals. In a bidirectional coupler, each port can be either an input or an output. However, for a PON application, a coupler being used to split a signal may be referred to as a splitter. In a PON, the input to the coupler in the picture above would be split equally between the six outputs. Data going into the coupler would be sent to each output just as the signal from the cable TV provider is sent to each TV in the passive copper network. Although each output will carry the same information as the input, the signal strength will be reduced based on the number of outputs. There is a finite limit on the number of outputs for a PON application; typically, the limit is 32. However, some applications may support more.
Active Optical Network
Active Optical Cables network is very similar to the active home cable TV network previously described. One optical fiber connects to a switch instead of a distribution amplifier. The switch rebroadcasts the Data Center Interconnection to each individual user. A separate cable is routed from the switch to each individual user. This type of active network overcomes the signal strength problem associated with a passive network. However, it does add a level of complexity and requires power. If the switch were to fail, all the users would lose access to incoming data. The same would be true if the switch lost power: data would stop flowing.
Some basic information about passive copper network, active copper network, passive optical network and active optical network has been described in this article. And each kind of network has their own features. Before choosing a certain one, please make clear all the related information and then install it.
You may want to connect your desktops, laptops, printers and other machines at your home to the internet and achieve the information sharing. Perhaps you just want to connect your smart phone via WiFi when you’re at home to reduce the usage of your mobile data plan. To complete that, all you need to know is how to build a home network with Optical Transceivers Industry. There are lots of ways to set one up. I’ll introduce the basic setup for the most common case. For person that already have a network, I’II tell ways about how to expand the existing home network in this blog too.
Basic Wired Ethernet Connection
The basis of your home network will be Ethernet. This word has a very specific technical meaning, but in common use, it’s simply the technology behind 99% of computer networks. Most computers now come already equipped with an Ethernet adapter – it’s the squarish hole that accepts Ethernet cables.
Usually, your broadband connection being cable, DSL, CWDM and DWDM, or something else will first go through some kind of device typically called a modem. The modem’s job is to convert the broadband signal to Ethernet. You’ll connect that Ethernet from your broadband modem to a broadband router. Router, as its name implies, is used to “route” information between computers on your home network and between those computers and the broadband connection to the Internet. Each of your computers already has an Ethernet adapter. An Ethernet cable will run from each computer to the router and another cable will connect the router to the modem.
Set up Wireless Connection
Most laptops and portable devices (and even a few desktops) support wireless connection via a technology known as WiFi. WiFi is a short-range wireless technology that you need to provide on your home network, if you want to be able to use it. The most common approach to include wireless capabilities in your network is by using a wireless router.The wireless router combines the functions of two devices: the router, just as we saw before, and a wireless access point. A wireless access point, occasionally abbreviated WAP, is simply a network device that converts the wired Ethernet signals into wireless WiFi signals and vice-versa. Wireless routers are actually more common than their wired-only counterparts in the home and small business networking market. In fact, even if you don’t have a wireless device today, I typically recommend getting a wireless router anyway for future expansion.
Expand the Home Network Capacity
The number of internet-connected devices that we now deal with is pretty amazing. A typical wireless router or router with a wireless access point can easily handle dozens of devices connected wirelessly. However, wired devices may present problems. Many home routers – wired or wireless – come with only a limited number of connections. It’s common for there to be exactly five connections: one for the internet (“WAN” or modem) and then four for networked devices.
If all you have is a four-port router, adding that fifth device looks like a problem. The simple solution is to use a switch. A switch is a semi-intelligent network extender. Its job is simply to make sure that data coming in on any port is sent to the other correct port to reach its intended destination. That’s really all it is. All ports on a switch are equal. In the example below, one port of the switch is connected to one of the ports on the router to which a computer might have been connected. Other computers are then connected to the switch. Switches come in many sizes and often add much more than just a few ports. Common configurations for the home include 8 or 16-port switches.
Build a home network is very easy. Usually, the modem is provided by ISP. All you need to buy is the router and some Ethernet cables. INFIBERONE.COM provides cat5e, cat6 and cat6a Ethernet cables with many color and length options. Snagless boot design prevents unwanted cable snags during installation and provides extra strain relief. Besides, custom service is also available. For more details, welcome to visit www.infiberone.com or contact us over email@example.com.
Power over Ethernet (PoE) is a technology that allows network cables to carry electrical current to power devices rather than by power cords. From late 1990’s, PoE has been widely used since it’s a reliable and cost-effective solution to provide both data and power over a single cable. Then what kind of cable is suitable for your PoE devices? The following content will tell you how to choose cables for Power over Ethernet.
Power Over Ethernet Standards
Power over Ethernet allows devices to be powered over 4-pair category cables. And the delivered power might be up to 100 watts. The IEEE standards 802.3.af and IEEE 802.3.at has ratified first two types of PoE. The power sourcing device compliant to these standards deliver the power of 15 watts and 30 watts. Usually lower power devices apply these types of PoE, such as IP telephones, MTP Cable Applications, Active Optical Cables, wireless access points and some cameras. Later the IEEE 802.3.bt developed two new standards for higher power delivery. These two types can offer power up to 60 watts and 100 watts respectively. The new PoEs can create more heat within the cable compared to the former two kinds. If the generated heat can’t be managed well, the whole system will be damaged. As well known, not all cables are constructed to be able to safely support the high power in the installation configurations. Thus, you have to consider several factors to ensure the cables suit your PoE devices.
Factors to Consider
Due to the high delivered power, close attention should be paid when picking the cable for PoE. Choosing the right cable is the key to the network quality and reliability. What factors should be concerned for buying cables?
Conductor resistance in PoE applications results in heat generation in the cable. Typically, Cat6 and Cat7 have larger conductor size than Cat5e. Cables with a larger conductor size can reduce more conductor resistances. It’s said that the heat generated in the cable will be reduced with the same ratio of the conductor resistance reduction. Cat6 cable has about 80% heat generation of Cat5e cable. Thus, the larger conductor size of the cable, the better.
Cable construction is also a factor leading the temperature rise of a cable. Copper cable can be divided into UTP (unshielded twisted pair cable) and STP (shielded twisted pair cable) cable based on cable structure. Usually cables with metallic or foil shields are proved to dissipate more heats than UTP cables. Higher heat dissipation leads cooler cable. When using Cat6 F/UTP cable, more than 40% heat can be dissipated compared to Cat6 UTP. If allowed, choose Cat7 S/FTP cable with a foil shield around each pair which can dissipate more heats than Cat6 and Cat6 F/UTP.
Cables with high temperature ratings allow for a higher amount of power to be dissipated. Typical temperature ratings for cables are 60°C, 75°C and 90°C. If the temperature of a cable rises, the electrical performance will be degraded. And it’s not good for the cable’s physical performance and longevity. According to researches, shielded cables are less likely to be affected by temperature that UTP cables.
The last factor is the cable installation configuration which has a large effect on the heat dissipation ability. Heat will be kept within the cable as high thermal resistance and high conductor temperature occur with large cable bundles or other installation factors. The larger the cable bundle size, the higher the temperature, no matter what cable category and construction structure.
Power over Ethernet has many applications, for example, IP camera, wireless network, etc. To some extend, whether PoE devices can operate well depend on four parameters, including cable conductor size, cable structure, cable temperature ratings, installation type. INFIBERONE.COM provides PoE switches and PoE media converters for your PoE applications. For your convenience, we also offer high quality Cat5e, Cat6, Cat6a and Cat7 cables with shielded or unshielded type. If you need to build PoE connections, get what you need from Fiberstore or contact us via firstname.lastname@example.org.
There are various kinds of 100G VCSEL series products in Infiberone, up to February 2017; Infiberone is capable of providing 100G multimode VCSEL optical transceivers with packaging technology as follows:
CFPX series: CFP SR10 , CFP SR4*, CFP2 SR10, CFP2 SR4*, CFP4 SR4
QSFP28 series：QSFP28 SR4，QSFP28 AOC
The result that Infiberone is playing a pretty important role in the global optical interconnection field completely benefited from the persistence of 10 years adhering to the VCSEL technology strategy. Despite of the fact that Infiberone does not produce VCSEL chips itself, close relationship between Infiberone and global VCSEL chips supply chain is being strongly maintained. Infiberone is patented multiple unique and mature technologies with FA, which angle is 45; fiber optic LENS, which shares the same angle with FA, and multi-mode parallel optical engine. Thanks to the years of VCSEL technology platform from 10G TO 40G, and then to 100G multi-mode parallel optical transceivers, Infiberone always remains the first level in the global VCSEL optical transceivers industry.
Regarding the 100G VCSEL series optical transceivers products, Infiberone is able to provide both fully dimensional products and multiple alternatives to the customers; also, the compatibility is outstanding. Industry recognition speaking, Infiberone can be regarded as the leading manufacturer of multi-mode VCSEL technology, which, as a matter of fact, only be second to FINISAR. Compared to other first-rate VCSEL optical transceivers manufacturers, the technology is about to be equally matched. The only difference rests with the advantages of low cost and expandability that Infiberone possesses. When it comes to CFP equipments, the original 100G CFP SR4 & 100g CFP2 SR4 multi-mode optical transceivers with Gearbox chips installed inside that Infiberone developed could solve the issue of lateral interconnection between 100G CFP old interface device and 100G BASE-SR4 new customers. Easily speaking, it realizes the interconnection between the 100G SFP multi-mode interface and QSFP 28 multi-mode interface.
Low cost: because both of the technologies of VCSEL optical transceivers and production platform are created by Infiberone itself, thus, the cost of coaxial package technology and COB technology have been optimized to be close to the edge. The delivery advantage has helped Infiberone winning strong support from the suppliers. Moreover, almost zero refund rate of multi-mode VCSEL products that Infiberone keeps helps to lower the cost.
Challenge & opportunity: currently, the main problem lies in the transmission bandwidth of multi-mode fiber along with the improvement of modulation rate of VCSEL, which requires other VCSEL with different features to be matched with. For example, if we adopt PAM4 to transmit signals, then the VCESEL will be needed to have a fairly wide dynamic range of modulation. For the future high-speed 200G/400G VCSEL optical transceivers, GIGALIHT’S VCSEL optical transceiver will use the same technical framework and the same technology platform, mutual penetration between platforms. By making sure that the core components of optical engines of multi-mode parallel optical transceivers will be developed toward the future 200G/400G optical transceivers modulated by PAM4, the nature of hero can still be showed.