Analysis on 100G Optical Transceiver in 5G Network

A few years later, 5G will begin to be formally commercial. Does it need to use the optical transceiver? How about its conditions of demand compared with 4G? In fact, 4G have uses the countless optical transceiver, 5G will be more. By the current 5G planning point of view, the rate may reach 10-100 times the 4G network. At this rate, the base station must adopt the optical transceiver to achieve the service function, so the demand of the 5G optical transceiver will far exceed that of the 4G optical transceiver.

According to statistics, the core components of 4G base-stations and 4G transmission equipment are 6G and 10G optical transceivers. Once 4G constructions not only led the advance in the wireless field, but also promoted the development of ancillary industries such as antenna, radio frequency and power supply, the industry is also a new growth driver.

In the optical transceiver, 100G optical transceiver is one of the high frequency words. Even in the sub-industry closely related to the 5G theme investment, the 100G optical transceiver has become a new landmark theme market. Therefore, the post will have a deep analysis on what is 100G optical transceiver.

A Brief Introduction on 100G Optical Transceiver

1. Firstly, we need to know that the 100G "G" refers to the optical signal transmission rate of units, rather than the 5G "G" (Generation, 5th generation mobile communications).

2. Optical transceiver: Optical device is to achieve high-speed conversion between optical signals and an optical device, the optical receiver, optical transmitter, laser, detector and other functional modules.

3. According to the encapsulation type (CFP / XFP / SFP / QSFP, etc.), the transmission rate (155Mbps ~ 200Gbps), optical link (CWDM / DWDM / PSM), mode / Hot swap), optical transceiver has a wide range of categories. If considering the operating temperature range, the number of self-diagnostic functions and performance classification elements, optical transceivers has more categories.

4. The basic structure of an optical transceiver includes a laser (TOSA) + driving circuit, a detector (ROSA) + receiving circuit, a multiplexer (MUX), a demultiplexer (DEMUX), an interface, an auxiliary circuit and a housing.

5. Driven by technological upgrading and cost reduction, the optical transceiver continues to be "high-speed, miniaturized and integrated." 100G optical transceivers using 25G laser chip technology, according to the different form factor methods, 100G optical transceivers have three categories, which are CFP / CFP2 / CFP4, CXP and QSFP28. QSFP28 is a new generation of 100G optical transceiver form factor, and has now become the mainstream optical transceiver form factor in 100G optical transceiver market.

6. 100G optical transceivers have different models and standards. Generally speaking, the transmission rate of optical signals is much higher than that of low-rate 10G and 25G products. Now they have become the star products in large-scale data centers and telecom markets. The following table is the specific circumstances of some common 100G optical transceiver standard:

Connector and Fiber
Cabling Reach
24f MPO, pinned parallel MMF, 10-fiber Tx, 10-fiber Rx 850 nm
100 meters on OM3150 meters on OM4
12f MPO, pinned parallel MMF, 4-fiber Tx, 4-fiber Rx 850 nm
100 meters on OM4
LC receptacles duplex (2) SMF, 1310 nm, 4λx25G WDM
10 kilometers on SMF
12f MPO, pinned parallel MMF, 4-fiber Tx, 4-fiber Rx 850 nm
40 kilometers on SMF
100G PSM4
12f MPO, pinned parallel SMF, 4-fiber Tx, 4-fiber Rx 1310 nm
500 meters on SMF
100G CWDM4
LC receptacles duplex (2) SMF, 1271–1331 nm, 4λx25G CWDM
2 kilometers on SMF
100G SWDM4
SWDM Alliance(preproduction)
LC, receptacles duplex (2) MMF, 850–950 nm, 4λx25G SWDM
100G CLR4
100G CLR4 Alliance
LC receptacles duplex (2) SMF, 1271–1331 nm, 4λx25G CWDM
2 kilometers on SMF


The advent of the 5G era will bring new opportunities for the optical communications industry. The entire industry such as optical fiber, optical transceivers and optical access network systems will benefit from the 5G construction. The world's major optical transceiver manufacturers are now taking this opportunity to launch new 100G optical transceivers to capture the 5G market. Gigalight, as a veteran optical transceiver manufacturer with professional technology, advanced R & D capability and stable manufacturing capability, not only has many popular 100G optical transceiver products, like 100G QSFP28 CWDM4, 100G QSFP28 PSM4, CFP4 100G SR4, and etc. but also will release more new 100G optical transceivers in the first quarter of this year. More information about 100G optical transceivers, please visit the official website. 


100G CFP/CFP2/CFP4 Optical Transceivers: Do You Know?

Because the size of the CFP optical transceiver is too large to meet the high-density requirements of Data Center, the CFP-MSA board defined two new CFP series optical transceivers: CFP2 optical transceiver and CFP4 optical transceiver. Therefore, there are three types of optical transceivers in the 100G CFP series based on different sizes of the form factors. In this article, we are going to talk about CFP / CFP2 / CFP4 in detail.

An Overview of CFP / CFP2 / CFP4

CFP optical transceiver is largest, CFP2 optical transceiver is one half of the CFP, and CFP4 optical transceiver is one quarter of the CFP. The size of these three modules is shown as below. CFP / CFP2 / CFP4 cannot be used interchangeably, but they can be used simultaneously in the same system.

CFP optical transceiver supports transmission on a single-mode and multi-mode fiber at a variety of rates, protocols, and link lengths, including all the physical media dependent (PMD) interfaces included in the IEEE 802.3ba standard. CFP optical transceiver is based on the Small Form Factor Pluggable Optical transceiver (SFP) interface and is larger in size to support 100 Gbps data transmission. CFP optical transceiver can support a single 100G signal, OTU4, one or more 40G signals, OTU3 or STM-256 / OC-768. There are mainly three kinds of 100G CFP optical transceivers: CFP 100GBASE-SR10, CFP 100GBASE-LR4 and CFP 100GBASE-ER4.


100G CFP2 optical transceivers are commonly used as 100G Ethernet interconnects and deliver higher transmission efficiencies than CFP optical transceivers. The smaller size also makes them suitable for higher density cabling. CFP2 100GBASE-SR10, CFP2 100GBASE-LR4 and CFP 2 100GBASE-ER4 are three mostly-used CFP2 optical transceivers in the current market.


Compared with CFP / CFP2 optical transceiver, 100G CFP4 optical transceiver has the same rate but the transmission efficiency has greatly improved. Besides, the power consumption is reduced and the cost is lower than CFP2. CFP4 optical transceiver has irreplaceable advantages. We will discuss it in the second part.


The Advantages of CFP4 Optical Transceiver

1. Higher transmission efficiency: The early 100G CFP optical transceiver, through 10*10G channel, to 100G transmission rate, and now 100G CFP4 optical transceiver through 4*25G channel, 100G transmission, so the transmission efficiency is higher and more stable.

2. Smaller size: CFP4 optical transceiver is one-fourth of the CFP, and is the smallest optical transceiver in the CFP series optical transceiver.

3. Module integration is higher: CFP2 integration is 2 times of CFP, CFP4 integration is four times of CFP.

4. Lower power consumption and cost: CFP4 optical transceiver transmission efficiency has been improved significantly, but the power consumption is decreased and the system cost is lower than CFP2.

In Conclusion:

By learning the above information about 100G CFP / CFP2 / CFP4 optical transceiver, you may have some further understanding about the optical transceiver series. Gigalight not only has variety kinds of 10G/40G/100G/200G optical transceivers, but also provides customers with an online e-commerce platform - inFiberone to meet their needs. More professional tutorials and solutions about optical transceivers and other optical components, you can visit its official website.


5G Network Brings New Opportunity to Optical Communication

Since Ovum released its latest 5G subscriber forecast in December 2016, two major changes have taken place in the 5G market. First and foremost, in March of this year, 3GPP announced the acceleration of the development of some 5G standards to make it possible to standardize on commercial 5G deployments by 2019, one year ahead of the previous deployment schedule. In addition, with the acceleration of the 5G standard set-up, T-Mobile US, one of the major carriers, announced for the first time a nationwide 5G network deployment and the United States will be one of the largest in the world.

At present, 5G is in the crucial stage of the formation of technical standards. Major countries and operators in the world have started the 5G test in succession and successively issued strategic plans to carry out industrial layout and seize strategic high ground. China is also actively promoting the 5G technology research and industrialization, 5G technology research and development testing, international standardization support continue to make new progress. Recently, more than three major operators 5G infrastructure, total spending within seven years will reach 180 billion U.S. dollars heavy news came out, the 5G topic to an unprecedented peak.

As we all know, the future of 5G depends on small base stations. When the coverage of base stations is getting smaller and smaller, the number of base stations will increase exponentially. Taking the example of 3.5GHz, the number of base stations of 3.5GHz is more than the number of base stations of 800MHz and 1.8GHz Doubles. If it is planned more than 6GHz, the number of base stations will be more. If it is planned to 26GHz above, it does not know it will reach how many times. Therefore, a substantial increase in the number of base stations is an inevitable result, and the interconnection between base stations requires a lot of fiber. It is reported that at present, the number of base stations in China has reached more than 5 million, while the future development of 5G, conservative forecasts will reach 10 million or more, if the high-band, or even more.

Obviously, optical communication and 5G have met by chance. Accordingly, what is the impact of 5G on optical communications? The opportunities that 5G brings to optical communication are mainly including three parts: optical fibers, optical transceivers and optical network.

1. First, optical fiber is the first beneficiary. 5G band is high and the number of base stations may be 2-3 times. If following the full coverage requirements, according to Fiber Broadband Association estimates, 5G fiber usage will be 16 times more than 4G. Consider China's 4G base station density is very high, the urban area only a few hundred meters spacing, it is estimated that the amount of 5G fiber is 4G 2-3 times.

2. Second, optical transceiver module is the second beneficiary. Assuming that the 5G base station is 2-3 times as much as 4G, considering the medium / backhaul module, it is expected to bring tens of millions of 25GHz high-speed optical module usage. 5G flat architecture to the traditional huge capacity and cost pressures, which requires a large number of optical transceivers to support.

3. Moreover, high-speed optical access network systems and optical devices are the third beneficiaries. The 5G architecture enables several decades of backhaul / midamble / preamble capacity up to tens of hundreds of Gbps levels and requires the introduction of 25G / 50G based CWDM or WDM for tunable lasers, tunable filters and CWDM / WDM devices High cost performance requirements; for TWDM PON systems, the demand for eCPRI and even edge ROADM systems is likely to increase significantly.

To sum up, we are currently at the pinnacle of opportunities and challenges in the 5G era. As the leading optical communications industry and optical component manufacturer in the 5G era, Gigalight has been closely following the market and moving ahead of 2016 in preparation for the beginning of 5G optical device product lines. At present, Gigalight owns a complete line of professional optical modules and other products. In particular, a large number of high-speed new products are launched in last year: 100G QSFP28 CWDM4, 100G QSFP28 PSM4, and 200G QSFP DD SR8. For


Difference between 100G QSFP28 and CFP/CFP2/CFP4 Optical Modules

Before the advent of the 100G QSFP28 optical module (an optical module that can be used to support 100G transmission), the development direction of the 100G network is 10G > 40G >100G. After the QSFP28 optical modules appeared, the development mode of 10G > 25G > 100G or 10G > 25G > 50G >100G began to become widespread in the industry. And now there are already some data centers that have began to adopt this method to achieve 10G to 100G upgrade.

The cost and power consumption of data center is an important driver of the optical communication market. Reviewing the development of 100G optical modules, the form factors (CFP, CFP2, and CFP4) and the standard development and improvement also mainly focus on low cost and low power consumption. 100G QSFP28 optical module meets these requirements. The post will compare 100G QSFP28 optical module and other 100G optical modules in terms of port density, power consumption, and cost respectively.

1. Port Density

The first generation of 100G optical modules was a very large CFP optical module, and then CFP2 and CFP4 optical modules were launched, among which CFP4 optical module was the latest generation of 100G optical modules and had a width of only 1/4 of the CFP optical modules. However, the form factor of 100G QSFP28 optical module is smaller than the CFP4 optical module, which means the 100G QSFP28 optical module has a higher port density on the switch.

2. Power Consumption

The power consumption of 100G QSFP28 optical module is usually lower than 3.5W while that of other 100G optical modules is usually between 6W and 24W. From this, 100G QSFP28 optical modules have much lower power consumption than other 100G optical modules.

3. Cost

Now the data center is mainly 10G network architecture, in which the interconnection solution is mainly 10GBASE-SR optical module and duplex LC multimode fiber jumper. If the existing 10G network architecture can be directly upgraded to 40 / 100G networks, it will save a lot of time and cost.

Although 100G QSFP28 optical modules have many advantages, it is only one of many solutions for 100G network. For data centers and server rooms, suit is best. Therefore, other 100G optical modules also have a place in the 100G network. Gigalight thinks that 100G QSFP28 optical module series, like 100G QSFP28 SR4, 100G QSFP28 LR4, 100G QSFP28 CWDM4 and 100G QSFP28 PSM4, have brought a new solution for 100G applications that will promote the faster development of 100G.


Development and Applications of 100G Ethernet

The fundamental requirement to speed Ethernet interface upgrading to 100 Gbit / s is bandwidth increasing. One of the most important factors is the bandwidth-intensive applications such as video. In addition, the telecom application of Ethernet also causes the increase of convergence bandwidth demand. Every level of network, from access to Ethernet users to the backbone, is approaching its current speed limit.

The development of 100G Ethernet standards and technologies is driven by demand but ahead of schedule. According to the plan of the IEEE802.3ba Task Force (TF), it is expected that standards will be finalized by mid-2010, but the real business time depends on more factors.

Bandwidth Demand for 100G Ethernet

First of all, under the premise of standard maturity, it also needs real network demand driven and is in the interest of operators. The main factors of bandwidth demands include:

1. The increasing business is based on IP, as it is now described by ALL IP;
2. Almost all the IP packets are sent from the source to sink, the whole process is encapsulated in the Ethernet frame;
3. The technology used in Ethernet over TDM /Ethernet has matured and traditional voice compatibility is no longer a problem;
4. Ethernet encapsulation is simpler and cheaper than SONET / SDH encapsulation.

 These decisions to upgrade the Ethernet interface to 100 Gbit / s are both objective and urgent. Network communications can be achieved on 100G Ethernet networks with "accelerated network communications and improved application performance", enabling fast access to data stored in data Center of the various applications, implementation of bandwidth management, cache, compression, path optimization and protocol acceleration and other functions.

Applications of 100G Ethernet

For the application at the convergence layer, the downlink port is switching to 10 Gbit / s and the uplink can only use 10 Gbit / s port link aggregation. If there is a 100G Ethernet interface, you can improve the management, distribution and efficiency of data flow. For the data center, with the increase of 10 Gbit / s interface, there is also the demand for upstream and inter-connected high-speed interfaces. For the efficient transmission of backbone networks, we also expect the 100G high- Interface and transmission maturity.

The P802.3ba standard has fully considered the maturity of related standards and technologies of the electrical interface when adopting the 10.312 5 Gbit / s inter-chip interconnection transmission channel. The multimode parallel optical interface can support the OM3 optical fiber to meet the requirements of 100 m Even over longer distances; single-mode 40GBASE-LR4 is economical with coarse wavelength division multiplexing (CWDM); 100GBASE-LR4 uses DWDM with 25.781 25 Gbit / s per wavelength and 1 295-1 310 nm wavelength, Fully use the original fiber, integrated technology and cost, the standard selection of technologies are practical and feasible, to help promote the 100G interface in the local and metropolitan area within the commercial.

For the whole network of use, serial 100GE transmission standard and technology before maturity can use the reverse multiplexing technology. 100GE services of 10 × 10GE or 4 × 25GE interfaces are adapted to OTU2 / OTU3 through ODU2 / ODU3 and transmitted through multiple wavelengths in 10G / 40G optical networks. It is possible to eliminate the need to redesign and modify existing 10G / 40G DWDM optical networks. The transmission pattern is still ODB / DRZ / EPR - Differential Quadrature Phase Shift Keying Control (eRZ-DQPSK). This model can be used 10G / 40G existing mature optoelectronic devices, and the entire system performance and 10G / 40G system consistent. This scheme can realize the smooth network upgrade, meet the operator's cost expectation, and the device is ripe [10].

Therefore, the current cost and demand point of view, 100 Gigabit Ethernet commercial first in the metropolitan area network is more feasible solution, because in the MAN, a lot of data on the road at any time, without a variety of compensation Device transmission system will greatly simplify the network design, 100 Gigabit Ethernet just to meet this demand, while high bandwidth to meet the metropolitan area network 40% annual traffic growth. In a word, the development demand of 100 Gigabit Ethernet has already been obvious, and the cost advantage will also be strengthened constantly. However, the transmission of 100 Gigabit Ethernet transmissions needs constant technical improvement from modulation mode to operation management and maintenance.

In addition to this technology upgrade, in addition to 100 Gigabit Ethernet, other protocols, including Fiber Channel, Infiniband and SONET, will also appear in 40/100 Gbit / s networks. In the late 1990s, Ethernet ports Equipment prices have dropped more than twice as fast as competitive ATM and Fiber Distributed Data Interface (FDDI). However, 40 Gbit / s and faster networks share many of the same FPGAs, SERDES, and encoding technologies, making it difficult for any device to achieve cost advantage by mass production. 100G Ethernet may not be as dominant as it used to be. 


In general, 100 Gigabit Ethernet technology is a very viable with high-profile technology that everyone is enthusiastic to participate in, but the standards and technologies themselves have yet to mature, and commercial pilots will be launched by the end of 2009 but mature commercial is expected to be beyond 2012.

In addition to the technical and commercial challenges, the opportunities presented are enormous, starting with the opportunity for research institutes to discover and innovate; bringing new, high-return markets to component and module suppliers (but also requires high investment); For system suppliers is a comeback and take this opportunity to lead the market.

As we all know, QSFP28 optical transceiver is considered as the mainstream modules for 100G Ethernet. But how to select QSFP28 optical transceivers for 100G Ethernet? Gigalight is able to provide various kinds of QSFP28 products, including QSFP28 DAC, QSFP28 AOC, and QSFP28 optical transceivers with different interfaces such as 100G SR4 / LR4 / PSM4 / CWDM4 optical transceivers. For more details, please visit its official website: http://www.gigalight.com/.


Way to Select QSFP28 Optical Transceivers for 100GbE Network

As we all know, QSFP28 is considered as the mainstream form factor of 100GbE optical transceiver. There are many QSFP28 products on the market, including QSFP28 DAC, QSFP28 AOC, and QSFP28 optical transceivers with different interfaces such as 100G SR4 / LR4 / PSM4 / CWDM4 optical transceivers. Which of the following is the best fit for your 100GbE network in these QSFP28 optical transceivers? It depends on several factors, the most basic being the distance you might want to reach and the type of cable you plan to use. This article will focus on how to select QSFP28 optical transceivers for 100GBE network.

1. Rack Cabling: 1-5M

QSFP28 Passive DAC High Speed ​​Cables include the QSFP28 to QSFP28 DACs and the QSFP28 to 4x SFP28 DACs, all of which are ideal for use within 5m. The QSFP28 DAC is an ideal solution to replace 100G optical transceivers for 100G short-range connections. If your 100GbE network is deployed in a 5m rack, the QSFP28 DAC passive high-speed cable is perfect for you.

2. Multi-mode Fiber Cabling between the Switches: 5-100M

There are two options for 100GbE cabling that uses multimode fiber between switches. One is to use the most suitable QSFP28 AOC active optical cable 3-20 meters. Another option is to use a QSFP28 SR4 optical transceiver with a 12-pin MTP OM3 / OM4 fiber patch cord. QSFP28 SR4 optical transceiver and 12-pin OM4 MTP fiber patch cord can support 100 meters of data transmission.

3. Single-mode Fiber Cabling between the Switches :100M-2KM

More than 100 meters but less than 2 kilometers are often referred to as medium distances. For most large data center operators, the 100GbE solution that is able to meet the medium-to-long distance at low cost is their best choice. QSFP28 PSM4 optical transceiver and QSFP28 CWDM4 / CRL4 optical transceiver are both suitable for long-distance 100G network. The PSM4 QSFP28 optical transceiver needs to be used with eight parallel single-mode optical fibers at a transmission distance of about 500 meters. CWDM4 / CRL4 QSFP28 optical transceivers need to be used together with single-mode fiber, the transmission distance can reach 2 km.

4. Long-mode Single-mode Fiber: ≤ 10KM

For very long 100GbE networks, such as connections between two buildings at distances of up to 10 km, the QSFP28 100GBASE-LR4 with an LC interface is the best defined by the IEEE and is typically used with single mode fibers. But now, the price of QSFP28 LR4 light module is still very high.

In Conclusion:

High-speed cables can only be used for short-haul connections between racks and at a fraction of the cost of optical transceivers, but their range of applications is limited. For most applications, various 100G optical transceivers still have an irreplaceable role. Gigalight supplies a variety of high-quality 100G optical transceivers, and ensures 100% compatibility. For more details, please visit its official website.


Gigalight Announces the Completion of Establishment for 100G CWDM4&PSM4 Mass-Production Lines

Shenzhen, China, November 29, 2017 Gigalight today announces that the mass productions of Gigalight 100G optical transceivers with high performance (100G QSFP28 CWDM4 and 100G QSFP28 PSM4 ) have been completed, which adopt the same tech platform and producing platform.
The development of data center leads to the huge demands on the 100G QSFP28 CWDM4/PSM4 optical transceivers. For many top-ranking companies manufacturing optical transceivers, the research and development of samples is easy, but how to produce them in volume and to guarantee their quality and reliability has always been a trouble in the industry. Gigalight 100G CWDM4/PSM4 is finally developed into the products with high productivity and high reliability after a long-time research and development from the COB tech to the third-generation hybrid hermetic encapsulation.
During the establishment of product lines, the CWDM4/PSM4 is produced in the 10000 grade dust-free workshop with constant temperature and constant humidity. Besides, this workshop covers 2000 square meters, and is equipped with 3 sets of fully-automatic wire bond/die bond devices with high precision and other automatic devices for producing and testing. At present, the capability of production is producing 20k optical modules per month. The brief introductions about PSM4 and CWDM4 will be respectively involved in the following contents.
The general power consumption of PSM4 optical transceivers produced in volume is almost less than 3.0W; the margin of optic eye diagram is higher than 20%; the receiving sensitivity of RX optic is higher than -14.0dbm under 1E-5BER; the jitter rms is less than 2.5ps. In addition, over 10KM optical transmission without error code is available for this module.  

The general power consumption of CWDM4 optical transceivers produced in volume is almost less than 3.0W; the margin of optic eye diagram is higher than 20%; the receiving sensitivity of RX light is higher than -10dbm under 1E-5BER; the jitter rms is less than 2ps. Moreover, over 2-10KM optic link circuit transmission is available for this module.

In 2011, Gigalight launched leading data-center active optical cables in domestic at the first time. After that, Gigalight successively launched 100G AOC, 100G SR4/LR4 optical transceiver, 200G QSFP-DD SR4 optical transceiver and AOC.

The announcement that CWDM4/PSM4 optical module can be officially put into production means that Gigalight has completely controlled all technical secrets about the COB tech platform, space optical design platform, AWG platform and hybrid hermetic encapsulation platform. All efforts build the solid foundation for Gigalight challenging to silicon tech platform.   
About Gigalight:
Gigalight is global optical interconnect technology innovator that focuses on high-end optical network products and solutions in three main applications: Data Center & Cloud Computing, MAN & Mobile Base Station, and Video & Consumer Optics. With more than 10 years' experience in optics industry, Gigalight has become a leader in global market of optical communications. Gigalight also sets up its e-commerce platform - Infiberone, which is mainly for industrial grade high-end fiber optics products. 


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Gigalight 100G Single Optical Transceiver Has Been Admitted By Domestic DPI Manufacturers

Nowadays, DPI industry is developed rapidly. In the development waves, the demand of Network security is constantly raised, and the personalized recognition for the users’ service is also gradually strengthened. Therefore, how to meet the market demands of data center, manufacturers and Internet enterprises,has recently become the crucial topic of Gigalight.
However, at the process of the implement from the gradual upgrading of 10G POS/WAN-40G/100G to the enrichment of product line, the improvement of delivery capability, the making of long-term goals, Gigalight has made breakthrough achievements in these aspects, seen from the truth that Gigalight continuously has won the bids  of the leading DPI device manufacturers in this field and has gained their supports. Now, the below is the detailed introduction about these measures:

Measure 1: Providing Rich Product Lines
For an enterprise, products are the core. Rich product lines is able to meet the needs of manufacturers in many aspects and to reduce the combination costs. Therefore, Gigalight spares no effort to build one rich product line, 100G QSFP28 LR4/CFP LR4/CFP2 LR4 series single optical module product line, satisfying the needs of clients about the high bandwidth. Meanwhile, by the tech innovation , the adoption of self-developed ROSA components lead to the low-cost products, bringing DPI manufacturers practical benefits. In addition, the 100G CFP4 LR4 also can be customized and achieve the multiple options of products.

Measure 2: Improving the Delivery Capability
For the professional optical transceiver manufacturers, they are not only with the ability to offer clients high-quality and high-performance optical transceiver solutions, but also with the delivery capability to share the delivery pressure of manufacturers.

Recently, Gigalight DPI series 100G single optical transceiver continuously won the bids of leading device manufacturers. Faced with the short delivery time, Gigalight gave the manufacturers a satisfying result by virtue of their strong delivery ability and high quality products, by which they are highly admitted by domestic DPI manufacturers and DPI market is also injected a new fresh air. 

Measure 3: Making The Long-Term Goals
For a company, a long-term  goal is the motivation of producing and the soul of offering higher-quality service for clients. Gigalight combines the market needs and its own tech strengths to achieve the goal, in the later two years’ DPI market, making the 100G product’s cost at $100 via scale and new tech to get the DPI devices applied widely, to continuously provide manufacturers with high-quality and low-cost optical module products and to offer more low-cost products to DPI manufacturers for options.

Above all is the Gigalight news about 100G single optical transceiver. If you want to know more, welcome to contact us at any time.

Note: Gigalight is the head office of Infiberone.


Consideration on the Applications of 100GE QSFP28 in the Large-Scare Data Center

1.The Changes On the Structure of Data Supercomputing Center Lead to the 100GE ports’ rapid increasing in Number, Showing the importance of Structure 
With the rapid increasing of IP flux , the accelerated infiltration of cloud computing and virtualization, and the fast burstout of IDC inner flux, large-scale data center is developed toward new and flat leaf- spine network structure continuously. Traditional three-layers network structure of data center will be replaced by new and flat leaf- spine network structure. 

Meanwhile, With the rapid increasing in quantity of interconnection ports between leaf converters and spine converters, the demands on high-end 40GE/100GE optical transceiver also rise rapidly with it. It’s predicted by the Third-Part Institution that 40GE/100GE high-speed optical modules’ quantity ,needed by leaf- spine network structure, is 15-30 times the quantity of Traditional three-layers network structure for the large-scale data center. In addition, high-speed optical modules will be upgraded from10G/40G optical module to 100G/200G, especially is 100G optical module, demands for it will be raised in a large scale. 

2.Exploration On the Background of Rapid Increasing for 100G Optical Module, Showing the Importance of Wiring 
It’s predicted by the Third-Part Institution, Ovum, that the deployed quantity of 100G single-mode optical module will be close to or exceed the one of 100G multimode optical module, With the rapid increasing in quantity of interconnection ports between leaf converters and spine converters, and the distance among converters extended . Shown as the above pic, in the data center with 500,000 ft2, the quantity of TOR/Leaf/Spine converters and 100G single-mode/multimode optical modules has been listed clearly. We need to make some theoretical exploration:  

A. Difficulties in wiring space due to the density of scales and devices. For these difficulties, data center may prefer to choose the 100G CWDM4 optical module in the long-distance interconnection, because it saves the fiber wiring space and the reduces fiber wiring difficulties superficially at least. But such kind of savings lead to self-limitation on account that wiring structure has no good designs from the beginning. Therefore, deep consideration is necessary before deploying it.

B. Based on the comprehension for scale and different techs, PSM4 and CWDM4 optical module will be deployed. They should be used on the basis of comprehensive assessment for their stability, power dissipation and working life. Technically evaluating, CWDM4 optical module is more complicated than PSM4 optical module. 

But whether the complex standards constituted by industry association are reasonable is worth reflecting. The performance of CWDM4 optical module is becoming higher and higher, and the large-scale usage for it will exist no dangers under the guarantee of 65 or double-85 test’s reliability. But we haven’t seen the improvements on techs from PSM4 to CWDM4, and it seems that everything is like factitious tech barriers and trends. Our viewpoints on CWDM4 are that it’s just an extension for PSM4 optical module, not another application tech superior to the former. The large-scale applications for the PSM4 and CWDM4 may be a miracle in the data center.

C. The wiring structure of data center has a great influence in the cost of large-scale data center. What we should focus on is wiring, not devices, which we consider as the deviation of industry’s focus. When we are keen on studying converters and servers with high speed and high performance, we must have wiring techs suitable for them, which is just like that inspection for subgrade , the assurance for the structure and plot ratio of the building, should be done before building a house. If everything about it weren’t confirmed, the built house may be with hidden safety dangers or not good in Fengshui theory. 

Similarly, if we don’t confirm the basic wiring, the PCB layout of electrical products, in advance, the performance of them will be at a mess. If a data center is built hastily, no differences with previously-built computer room, and it will truly enter into the deserted stage. 

D. We must have a long-term consideration on data center, in which long term must be a relative concept. How long it should be must integrate the present progress and demands on dealing with the datas in the data center. If the sources of rapid increasing needs aren’t confirmed, frankly speaking, the distribution for a new data center will be finally proved to be impractical and wasteful when it adopts immatural or the most advanced products. 

In addition, the future level about interconnection tech of data center still isn’t confirmed, even though certain paths made by industry association aren’t necessarily correct in the direction. Now, industry association is used to making many decisions hastily, which usually leads to efforts in the incorrect direction. 

3.Advantages of 100G PSM4/100G CWDM4/100G LR4 Optical Module And The Importance of Choices.
A comparison about the integrated parameters of 100G optical module in wavelength, optical connector, fiber types, working distance, the interior of optical module with/without MUX/DEMUX, system terminal with/without needs of FEC function, the power dissipation of optical module and so on, in this table, used for customers’ reference:    

100GBASE-SR4(100 m) and 100GBASE-LR4(10 km) are defined by IEEE. Due to the needs from data center customers, 100G CWDM4 and 100G PSM4 are also defined by MSA, making up for the gap in needs between 100meters and 10KM. Compared with 100GBASE-LR4, 100G CWDM4 and 100G PSM4 have the lower cost advantages and their application distances cover 2 KM. And 100G PSM4 adopts parallel single-mode tech and MPO APC 8°connector with eight fibers, with the lowest cost in the 100G single-mode transmission tech. 

Besides, in the market, there is 100G PSM4 made on the basis of silicon photonics tech or traditional 4x mini TOSA packaging tech. Similarly, they have the advantages on the low cost. Sometimes two-fibers CWDM4 are considered to be more economical and practical than multi-fibers PSM4. However, the results is contrary:
1. PSM4 increases the complexity of wiring density, and CWDM4 results in the complexity of devices’ performance. 

2. PSM4 is still available to extend in space, and CWDM4 has gotten into the endless loop.

3. PSM4 is with higher stability and reliability in the wavelength, and in the present whole chain, CWDM4 still exists problems in reliability and have no way to pass the double-85 test. 

4. PSM4 is with lower power dissipation, and CWDM4 needs interior temperature or control from the external environment to reach the ideal power dissipation on account that the narrow space of module causes the heat dissipation problem.

5. PSM4 is easier to manage because of its clear link path, and CWDM4’s link path is not clear. 

Whatever optic product manufacturers of data center want, the producers of optical module can provide it for them. And it’s proved that there exists direction problems in the previous comparison of advancement and superiority between optical module/ devices and data center. All techs about optical module will tend to be same in the performance and be more stable one year later. We should concentrate on the improvement of wiring techs and more economical and practical items. 

With the progress in the optical interconnection tech, data center will tends to be at the state of instant evolution and flourish, which means continuous devotion and evolution and is with no ultimate products. The combination process from 1G to 100G and then from 400G to 1T, will be the final and vital formation of data center, based on the combination of different applications.  

4.Introduction about 100GE QSFP28 Data Center Application Cases
1. In June, 2016, Azure data center started to adopt Intel 100G QSFP28 PSM4 silicon photonics optical module volumely. Azure cloud service have been used in the 140 countries, and over 90% of Fortune 500 enterprises have applied Microsoft Azure, which will be immediately expanded to 34 areas on the basis of existing 28 areas in the world where more than 100 data centers were invested to build. The number will exceed the sum of AWS, Google and AliCloud. 

2. In February, 2017, Facebook specially released OCP CWDM4 standards to deploy 100G QSFP28 CWDM4 scalely. For the volume production and low cost, Facebook has loosened part of standards, such as working temperature, optical emission power, receiving sensitivity and optical link path index. At present, Facebook has purchased 100G QSFP28 CWDM4 optical module.

5.Recommendation on the Infiberone 100GE QSFP28 Products 
By their own strength, Infiberone developed 100G QSFP28 CWDM4 optical module with cost benefit by themself. This optical module adopts self-packaged optical engine, and some micro components are assembled inside, such as DFB laser(1271nm,1291nm,1311nm and 1331nm)of 4-channels 25Gbps uncooled CWDM, 4-channels optical detector, CDRs, micro AWG chip and so on. Under the total air temperature(0~70℃), its typical power consumption is lower than 2.6W, and its optic eye diagram margin is higher than 20%. 

In addition, its sensitivity is(pre-FEC 1E-5BER OMA)<-10.5dBm. Its error rate guarantees BER is higher than 1x10-12 under the application of post FEC. Meanwhile, it uses Duplex LC optical interface and meets the needs of 2km transmission distance. Infiberone will get about to producing it volumely in the forth quarter of 2017.
Infiberone QSFP28 PSM4 optical module shows a good performance under the  -5°C/25°C /55°C. The uniformity and consistency of four channels are accorded with design requirements and its optical eye diagram margin is higher than 15% under the -5°C/25°C /55°C . and sensitivity is higher than-9.5dbm(1E-5) constrained by agreements, meeting the needs of data center applications in the fiber transmission distance, no less than 2km. the success on the development of Infiberone 100G PSM4 optical module, means that it officially has its own essential tech and skill in the single-mode optical engine. In addition, it will start to produce this product volumely in the third quarter of 2017.

Infiberone set about to developing data center single-mode product line and its packaging techs in 2015 and officially sold 100G QSFP28 LR4 (DML)products in the end of 2016. 100G QSFP28 LR4 optical module’s power consumption is lower than 3.5W, and uses self-packaged optical engine, ROSA. In addition, its transmission distance can reach 10km when it’s connected with single-mode fiber. It conforms to IEEE802.3ba 100GBASE-LR4 and QSFP+ MSA standards. Its typical power consumption is lower than 2.6w under the total air temperature (0~70℃) and its optical eye diagram margin is higher than 20%. In the first quarter of 2017, Infiberone gets down to producing this product volumely.

For Infiberone second-generation 100G QSFP28 SR4 with lower power consumption, under the CDR working condition, its typical power consumption under the indoor temperature and 70℃ respectively is 2W and 2.2W, reaching the power consumption level ,MAX POWER 2.5W in the SFF-8436 V4.8 MSA Power level 3. 

Meanwhile, it meets the standards, such as IEEE 802.3bm 100GBASE SR4, InfiniBand EDR, 32GFC and so on, downward compatible with 10GE, completely suitable for transmission applications on transmission, such as OM3 75meters fiber transmission and OM4 100meters fiber transmission. Under the true test conditions, OM4 fiber with 100meters transmission distance has no any error code according to the stricter error rate test standards. 100G QSFP28 SR4 adopts the lens tech and optical engine tech self-developed by Infiberone, supporting the digital diagnostic function and integrating data channel of 25Gbps with 4 channels and receiving-and-sending function. 

In addition, 100G QSFP28 SR4 optical module is with higher performance in optical eye diagram, sensitivity for receiving and electric eye chattering. At present, this product has been produced volumely. The VCSEL optical module tech and production tech platform are self-developed by Infiberone, and their related cost is close to critical value by optimization whether it’s in coaxial packaging or COB tech. Advantages on the scale of delivering has been strongly supported by suppliers. 

Infiberone is the advocator of 100G QSFP28 optical module products and tech marketing in date center ,and maintains a keen insight into technology and cost . In 2016, Infiberone started to arrange the layout about all series of 100G QSFP28 optical module and solutions. In March,2017, 100G PSM4 optical module was officially pushed out. And in July,2017, the sample of 100G QSFP28 CWDM4 optical module was developed, which used AAWG chip and unique COB tech platform, with good stability in temperature, suitable for the capacity expansion of data center with parallel structure or optical interconnection structure of wavelength division multiplexing style data center. 

The successful development of 100G QSFP28 CWDM4 and 100G QSFP28 PSM4 optical module has built a new competitive strength for Infiberone data center market strategy, and will also be one of the most powerful suppliers of 100G optical module in the domestic data center.

Note: Infiberone is a sub-brand of Gigalight, we focus on high-end optical network devices, mainly supplying industrial-grade optical transceivers and professional optical interconnection components for data centers. With more than 10 years' experience in optics industry, we now have professional R&D team(more than 100 engineers) and stable supply ability.